50 anni d’arte> Printing techniques

Michele Cascella stampa presso di noi

Graphic requirements

They are summarized in the proceedings of the III International Congress of Plastic Arts held in Vienna in 1960.

A print in order to be defined authentic and original must meet the following conditions:

A) be taken from a matrix engraved directly by the artist

b) bear the artist's autograph signature, an indication of the sequence number of

              Specimen and total circulation

c) At the end of the run, the matrix must be squiggly (i.e. rendered unusable with
   Abrasions, scratches and signs of cancellation).

Works that do not meet these requirements must be regarded as mere reproductions of almost zero value.


However we suggest to the enthusiast:

To buy works of aOnly in competent and specialised retailers
Always have a guarantee certificate issued. 


Print Methods

Printing from a flat matrix: lithograph – Serigraphy
Cable matrix Printing: etching, aquatint, point. 



Discovered at the beginning of 1800 by the German Aloys Senefelder, for the ease of execution and for the achievable effects it spreads immediately throughout Europe (among the first to adopt the new technique is Francisco Goya, who died in 1828, running the famous "Bulls of Bordeaux ". (Photo 3 – Star Press of the corner)


The artist draws directly on the stone, the design is fixed with a mixture of gum arabic and nitric acid, it distributes with a roll of leather the printing ink that will adhere only to the drawn part of the stone. Apply a sheet of paper and go to the press to obtain the first Test (Bon à tirer). If the lithograph is in color you need an array for each color, then go curThe "registers" to obtain a perfect overlapping of colors. To obtain a 5-colour lithograph in 125 specimens it will be necessary to make about 650 passes. Our printer Martina is a true master!


The lithographs published by the angular art editions are exclusively printed with lithographic stone and star-shaped presses.

View our lithographs



Already known in antiquity for the decoration of fabrics and ceramics, it is relatively recent the use of this technique for art prints: it allows to obtain thirty and more colors and a greater body. 

In addition you can get very high runs, in the United States, where there are customary runs in thousand specimens, is the most used technique.

The matrix consists of a frame on which a silk is stretched (today also synthetic fibres). The undrawn part is waterproofed with a jelly, it stretches the color with a RACLA. The colour passes on the underlying sheet only through the holes left by the gelatine, that is, in correspondence with the drawing, thus leaving the desired mark on the paper. Here too we need an arrayFor each color. 

View our serigraphs



The technique, born towards the end of the FIFTEENTH century, consists of covering a plate of copper or zinc with a varnish based on wax and carbon black. 

The artist then draws with metallic tips of different thickness, without engraving the metal, but removing only the layer of paint. 

We then pass the plate engraved in a solution of nitric acid that cuts the metal only in the spots discovered by the wax and then digs the grooves more p less deep. You clean the matrix well, you inked with a swab and you pass the Calcographic press with a sheet of damp paper. 

Among the greatest artists who excells in etching, we remember D Ürer, Rembrandt, Tiepolo and the Canaletto. 

This technique is born as an alternative to the pointed-dry or burino incision, which directly affects the slab.

View our Recordings


At the end of the printing, lithograph or serigraphy or etching, the specimens are numbered and signed in pencil Dto the artist. 


The numbering is made with Arabic numerals, then they are numbered with Roman numerals no more than XXX copies. 


There are also artists ' proofs, proofs of color and printing.  

Only if they differ from the final run, they will have a greater value being considered almost as unique pieces. 


The complete circulation must be declared on the Certificate of Authenticity: Arabic numerals, Roman numerals and author's proofs. 


The certificate is issued by the publisher of the graphic work.